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Tuberculosis Disease

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What is Tuberculosis Disease

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Tuberculosis Disease germs don’t thrive on surfaces. You can’t get disease from shaking hands with someone who has it, or by sharing their food or drink. You have the germs in your body, but your immune system stops them from spreading. That means you don’t have any symptoms and you’re not contagious. But the infection is still alive in your body and can one day become active. If you are at high risk for re-activation for instance, you have HIV,your primary infection was in the last 2 years, your chest X-ray is abnormal, or you are immunocompromised your doctor will treat you with antibiotics to lower the risk for developing active TB.

If the immune system weakens, such as in people with HIV or elderly adults, TB bacteria can become active. In their active state, TB bacteria cause death of tissue in the organs they infect. Medication can help get rid of the inactive bacteria before they become active. Tuberculosis or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease, usually cause by bacteria. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air. Most infections dose not show symptoms and is latent, about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected. When people with active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, sing, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.5 to 5.0 µm in diameter. A single sneeze can release up to 40,000 droplets.

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Tuberculosis (TB) Disease

Tuberculosis (TB) Disease it is a multi systemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod-shaped bacterium. TB is the most common cause of infectious disease-related mortality worldwide (about 1.1 million to 1.7 million people die from it each year worldwide). TB symptoms can span such a wide range that TB is termed the “great imitator” by many who study infectious diseases because TB symptoms can mimic many different diseases. Additional terms are used to describe TB. The terms include consumption, Pott’s disease, active, latent, pulmonary, cutaneous, and others (see the following section), and they appear in both medical and nonmedical publications. In most instances, the different terms refer to a specific type of TB with some unique symptoms or findings.The disease, especially in developed countries, has been markedly reduced. However, the CDC estimates one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB with about 1.5 million deaths per year.

The goal of this article is to introduce the reader to TB and help them to obtain a general knowledge about TB’s cause, transmission, diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention methods. There are many types of tuberculosis, but the main two types are termed either active or latent TB. Active TB is when the disease is actively producing symptoms and can be transmitted to other people; latent disease is when the person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, but the bacteria are not producing symptoms (usually due to the body’s immune system suppressing the bacterial growth and spread) and have no
TB bacteria in the sputum. People with latent TB usually cannot transfer Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria to others unless the immune system fails; the failure causes reactivation bacterial growth) that results in active TB so the person becomes contagious. Latent TB resembles chickenpox infection that goes dormant and may reactivate years later.

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Some Other Types Of Tuberculosis Diseases

Many other types of TB exist in either the active or latent form. These types are named for the signs and for the body systems Mycobacterium tuberculosis preferentially infect, and these infection types vary from person to person. Consequently, pulmonary TB mainly infects the pulmonary system, cutaneous TB has skin symptoms, while miliary TB describes widespread small infected sites (lesions or granulomas about 1 mm-5 mm) found throughout body organs. More types will be listed in the symptoms and signs section below. The cause of TB is infection of human tissue(s) by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria are slow growing, aerobic, and can grow within body cells (an intracellular parasitic bacterium). Its unique cell wall helps protect it from the body’s defenses and gives mycobacteria the ability to retain certain dyes like fuschsin (a reddish dye) after an acid rinse that rarely happens with other bacterial, fungal, or parasitic genera.

Mycobacteria that escape destruction by body defenses may be spread by blood or lymphatic pathways to most organs, with preference to those that oxygenate well (lungs, kidneys). Typical TB lesions, termed granulomas, usually consist of a central necrotic area, then a zone with macrophages, giant Langerhans cells and lymphocytes that become surrounded by immature macrophages, plasma cells, and more lymphocytes. These granulomas also contain mycobacteria. In latent infections, a fibrous capsule usually surrounds the granulomas, and in some people, the granulomas calcify, but if the immune defenses fail initially or at a later time, the bacteria continue to spread and disrupt organ functions. There are many risk factors for developing tuberculosis. Certain groups of people have a high risk, such as people who work in hospitals and other areas where TB-infected people may reside (jails, nursing homes, group homes for HIV patients, homeless shelters)..Patients with HIV infection Drug abusers, especially IV.

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Types Of Tuberculosis Disease

Although there are a number of TB types, pulmonary TB is responsible for the majority of TB infections. Consequently, pulmonary TB symptoms and signs may occur with or even before other types of TB are diagnosed. The classical clinical symptoms and signs of pulmonary TB may include the following. Cough (often chronic) Hemoptysis (coughing up bloody sputum)Decrease or loss of appetite Weight loss and/or muscle loss.Fatigue and/or malaise Chest pain Shortness of breath Swollen lymph nodes Pneumonitis. Other types are loosely classified as extra pulmonary and often have symptoms that are nonspecific but frequently localized to the involved site. The following includes the signs and symptoms of additional types of TB. Skeletal TB (also termed Pott’s disease): spinal pain, back stiffness, paralysis is possible TB meningitis: headaches (variable in length but persistent), mental changes, coma TB arthritis: usually pain in a single joint (hips and knees most common).

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Genitourinary TB

Genitourinary TB, dysuria, flank pain, increased frequency, masses or lumps (granulomas)Gastrointestinal TB: difficulty swallowing, non healing ulcers, abdominal pain, malabsorption, diarrhea (blood spitting) Miliary TB: many small nodules widespread in organs that resemble millet seeds (hence its name)Pleural TB: empyema and pleural effusions MDR TB: patients infected with TB bacteria that are resistant to multiple drugs XDR TB: patients infected with TB bacteria that are resistant to some of the most effective anti-TB medications; XDR stands for extensively drug resistant. TB is very contagious and can be spread to others by airborne droplets during sneezing, coughing, and contact with sputum, so you can get the disease by close contact with infected people; outbreaks occur in crowded conditions. The incubation period may vary from about two to 12 weeks. However, some people may be infected but suppress the infection and develop symptoms years later; some never develop symptoms or become contagious.

Because TB may occur as either a latent or active form, the definitive diagnosis of active TB depends on the culture of mycobacteria from sputum or tissue biopsy. However, it may take weeks for these slow-growing bacteria to grow on specialized media. Since patients with latent TB do not require isolation or immediate drug therapy, determine Consequently, doctors needed a presumptive test(s) that could reasonably assure that the person was infected or not so therapy could begin. The treatment for TB depends on the type of TB infection and drug sensitivity of the mycobacteria. For latent TB, three anti-TB drugs are used in four different recommended schedules. The drugs are isoniazid, rifampin, and rifapentine and the CDC’s four recommended schedules are below and are chosen by the treating doctor based on the patients overall health and type of TB the patient was likely exposed to.

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